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On racism and restitution: a Stellenbosch journey

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Nic Spaull, PhD student at Stellenbosch, recently wrote a long response to a comment I had made on his Facebook wall. In a nutshell, Nic’s argument was that the dominant culture at Stellenbosch is white and Afrikaans and therefore also conservative and subversively homophobic. I still don’t agree entirely with Nic, but let us focus on another issue which Nic and I have debated since his post and to which he alludes in his final paragraph: that Stellenbosch has not done enough to acknowledge and distance itself from its apartheid history.

Here’s the evidence: There is still a DF Malan* building on campus (erected with National Party funds to honour the founder of apartheid). There is still a plaque commemorating Hendrik Verwoerd in one of the entrances to the Accounting and Statistics building (which used to be called the Verwoerd building). These are the architects of apartheid. The fact that these names and artefacts continue to exist sends a strong signal, Nic argues, that Stellenbosch is unwilling to change. Black students find these relics deplorable and possibly preserved with malicious intend. These relics say: ‘You are now stepping on Afrikaner domain – this is our bastion’.

Architechts of apartheid: Malan, Strijdom and Verwoerd all have Stellenbosch roots

Malan, Strijdom and Verwoerd all have Stellenbosch roots

There is no doubt that some black students find Stellenbosch an uncomfortable and often abusive place. In my conversations with them, they’ve expressed similar views to those expressed on Nic’s blog or on other forums. Racist incidents around Stellenbosch’s bars and pubs seem, sadly, to be a particularly popular anecdote. But for a long time, the university itself harboured an inhospitable attitude towards English-speaking black students. Classes were only in Afrikaans, with little additional support provided. Residences seemed to be places of white exclusivity, the last remnants of what must look like a modern-day version of the Broederbond. Even though the university continued to excel in research, moving up international rankings, the campus remained, and remains, predominantly white and Afrikaans.

My sense, though, is that this is changing. I’ve lived in Stellenbosch for more than a decade. The campus today looks remarkably different than it did when I was a student. Nic showed some graphs that suggest little has changed, which is the reason he argues that not enough is being done. I tend to differ, mostly because I believe that the best type of change is that which happens organically. A call, if you like, for incrementalism. Here’s some hard numbers published on the university website: since 2007, white, male undergraduate students have increased by 9.6%. In the same period, black, male undergraduate students increased by 73%. White females increased by 6.4%. Black females increased by 148%. Yes, black students are still a minority, but these numbers reflect a rapidly growing minority. Given another decade, Stellenbosch should have the same racial profile that UCT has today.

Accessibility is one reason for these dramatic changes. All courses in the faculty where I teach (Economics and Management Sciences) are now taught in English. In 2014, for the first time in Stellenbosch University’s history, more English-speaking students enrolled than Afrikaans-speaking students. Various campus activities, like the very successful Diversity Week, encourage debates about gender, race, religion and sexual orientation, and activities that engage students from different social networks. Several building projects on campus are actively promoting social integration between those living in residences and commuters, for example. The point is: the Stellenbosch campus in 2015 will look very different from the Stellenbosch campus of 2010.

Many Afrikaans-speaking whites might sneer at such changes. ‘There are more than enough English universities for English-speaking South Africans to go to’, the argument goes. ‘Why do they want to come to Stellenbosch?’ Three reasons: 1) Because, if Stellenbosch wants to be the best university in Africa, we want to attract the best students. For a long time, and for historical reasons created by the Malan’s and the Verwoerd’s of the past, the best students used to be white and Afrikaans. Not any more. 2) Because the firm of the future wants to appoint employees that can interact with a diverse array of clients and colleagues. Computer programmers, marketers, scientists, engineers, artists will have to collaborate with people that do not share the same ideas about the world. The best place to get exposure of such interaction is at varsity. 3) Not only that, but one of the most fundamental lessons we have learned is that diversity – of race, religion, ideas – promotes the scholarly process, that there are positive externalities generated by interacting with people that see the world different from yourself. The whole (universitas) is greater than the sum of its parts.

Which brings us back to the question of whether the DF Malan building should be renamed. Perhaps renaming it to the Beyers Naude Memorial Centre will send a strong signal, even if it is only a signal. But I fear that is a too easy solution. As Nic noted to me, if the name is changed, Stellenbosch can take the ‘moral high ground’ having distanced itself from its horrible past. No, Nic. The moral high ground is exactly the place we should avoid, because it leads to self-satisfaction and self-congratulation that you have ‘dealt with the past’ when South African society all around us is so obviously still affected by its legacy. Changing a plaque on a wall cannot and should not give ‘us’ the moral high ground. Instead, our collective history should serve as a constant reminder not only of where we come from, but how we’ve travelled and how far we still have to go.

This week Public Works Minister Thulas Nxesi’s wife, Nombulelo, received an Honours in Public Administration from Stellenbosch University. The degree was conferred on her in the DF Malan Memorial Centre. Some may see this as irony, and perhaps others may see shame and tastelessness. I disagree. In a country where our recent history has such a devastating impact on the present, this is how we claim agency of the future. I say let’s keep the DF Malan Memorial Centre. Let’s keep the historical artefacts in buildings to apartheid founders. For Cecil’s sake, let’s keep Rhodes University’s name, and the Rhodes Scholarships, and the Rhodes memorial in Cape Town, even if it is named after one of the most racist men in history. And we do so not to celebrate their deeds, but to celebrate how far we’ve come as a country.

It’s been only twenty years since the end of apartheid. In another twenty years, Stellenbosch will be irrevocably different. Not because you won’t hear Afrikaans (you will), or because you won’t see a white face (there will still be many), but because it will be a place where the sharpest minds congregate to solve Africa’s most daunting challenges. And to graduate in a hall that remind us of the long and costly road to freedom for all.

*Lindie Koorts, postdoctoral fellow at the University of the Free State and former PhD-student at Stellenbosch, has written an excellent new biography of DF Malan. The Financial Mail reviews it here, or you can read Steve Hofmeyr’s review in Afrikaans here. Listen to Lindie’s interview on SABC here.

Written by Johan Fourie

April 25, 2014 at 09:38

18 Responses

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    I’m really confused about this Land issue. They keep on saying we stole their land, but things does not add up.

    On 24 September 2016, Zuma delegated the responsibility of giving the main address of Heritage Day at Galeshewe Stadium in Kimberley to his deputy, Cyril Ramaphosa. Zuma was at Moses Mabhida Stadium in Durban to attend an uMkhosi weLembe (Shaka’s Day) celebration that marked 200 years since King Shaka founded the Zulu kingdom.

    200 Years!!? That means the Zulu nation only exists since the year 1816 (other records say 1818). The Zulu as a nation, didnt even exist yet when my forefathers started farming on this barren land. Jan van Riebeeck landed at Cape Point in 1652.

    These dates of course fits in with the historical event where Piet Retief trekked North, away from the British Colonial rule in the Cape, and for the first time crossed paths with Blacks (North of the Tugela River) who were moving south to get away from the Central Africa Genocide. This happened in 1838, a full 186 years AFTER the white man came to South Africa. When he found this black informal settlement (the blacks NEVER settled down and constantly moved to greener pastures after they used up every living thing in an area), he went to see their King and gave him Cattle in exchange to settle down in that area (a purchase transaction written down on paper). After the transaction, the King lured Retief and his men into a trap and slaughtered all of them (AFTER he first disarmed them – telling them they should leave their weapons at the gates in good faith), after which he went and slaughtered all the woman, children and elderly who camped not far from there.

    The great battle of Blood river followed where Andries Pretorius (the white buffalo) and 459 men, took revenge and killed 15000 of the Zulus.

    The Zulu Language was not even a written language until the arrival of missionaries from Europe, who documented the language using the Latin script. The first grammar book of the Zulu language was published in Norway in 1850 by the Norwegian missionary Hans Schreuder – a European!! Now consider that the Bible was written 2000 years ago and the Egyptians had some sort of written language over 4000 years ago, yet when the Zulu nation was formed in 1816 they had no written language, have not designed the wheel yet, stayed in single storey straw huts and lived like Nomads, never settling down using up the immediate nature until there was nothing left, then packed up and moved on to greener pastures.

    For 1000’s of years he was crunching acres of diamonds beneath his bare black feet. Yet he never picked one up from the dust until a White man showed to him its glittering light. His land swarmed with powerful and tame animals, yet he never dreamed a harness, cart, or sled. A hunter by necessity, he never made an axe, spear, or arrowhead worth preserving beyond the moment of its use. He lived as an ox, content to graze for an hour. In a land of stone and timber he never sawed a foot of lumber, carved a block, or built a house other than of broken sticks and mud. With league on league of ocean strand and miles of inland seas, for four thousand years he watched their surface ripple under the wind, heard the thunder of the surf on his beach, the howl of the storm over his head, gazed on the dim blue horizon calling him to worlds that lie beyond, and yet he never dreamed a sail.

    But we stole “their” land?
    My forefathers never had any quarrels with blacks, except when attacked after which they took revenge. The British on the other hand, has always been at different ends with the Blacks. Apartheid was introduced by the British – not the hated Afrikaner Boers – long before SA became a Republic under Hendrik Verwoerd.
    On 11 December 1878, agents of the British again bumped heads with the Zulus and delivered an ultimatum to 11 chiefs representing Cetshwayo. The terms forced upon Cetshwayo required him to disband his army and accept British authority. Cetshwayo refused, and war followed. During the war, the Zulus defeated the British at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879. The British managed to get the upper hand after the Battle at Rorke’s Drift, and subsequently win the war with the Zulu being defeated at the Battle of Ulundi on 4 July 1879.

    After Cetshwayo’s capture a month following his defeat, the British divided the Zulu Empire into 13 “kinglets”. The sub-kingdoms fought amongst each other until 1883 when Cetshwayo was reinstated as king over Zululand. This still did not stop the fighting and the Zulu monarch was forced to flee his realm by Zibhebhu, one of the 13 kinglets, supported by Boer mercenaries (yes you read correctly…the now hated Boers supported the Zulus!!). Cetshwayo died in February 1884, killed by Zibhebhu’s regime, leaving his son, the 15-year-old Dinuzulu, to inherit the throne. In-fighting between the Zulu continued for years, until Zululand was absorbed fully into the British colony of Natal.

    But today, they want the Afrikaner Boer out, whilst they have secret meetings with the British Chatham house aka Rothschild think tank.

    Cobus Gerber

    March 8, 2018 at 10:01

  2. Please also read:
    The “term” apartheid is/was derived terminology. The very first actions taken and implemented in this regard was by the British.

    Cobus Gerber

    March 5, 2018 at 20:13

  3. Your link: Steve Hofmeyr’s review in Afrikaans here. … has gone missing. Is there any way for me to access this article elsewhere?


    August 26, 2015 at 12:21

  4. […] names across the country – like the DF Malan centre at Stellenbosch University (despite my attempts last year to suggest that it can be seen as a victory over the past) – have changed. But, as far […]

  5. A brilliant and thought-provoking response.


    May 20, 2014 at 14:44

  6. […] Rector of Stellenbosch University Russel Botman, Prof Botman’s reply, Johna Fourie’s blog post on this, and the recent article in Die Matie dealing with the […]

  7. I have always been in favour of keeping names. Bruinmens, is what I’m called.

    Name changes pains me financially but that’s not the first reason. It is because people forget too easily.

    And why copy with the same action when you can encompass and include – what the previous architects ‘couldn’t’ do?

    History is fuller, richer and more valuable when intertwined with the reality of both the progressing future and the origin of the past.


    April 27, 2014 at 12:21

  8. I’m not saying forget the past, I’m just saying that plaques like this one ( should be in an apartheid museum with explanations and translations, not STILL hanging ominously in the foyer of the Rek-en-Stats building without any explanation of who Verwoerd was and what he did. Of course changing names doesn’t give one the moral high ground, but refusing to change the name so one can see poetic justice in Black graduates graduating in the D.F Malan Memorial Centre feels like a high price to pay. I really don’t see this issue as having two sides that both have merit.

    Nic Spaull

    April 26, 2014 at 15:03

  9. Bravo. I applaud your critical thinking and willingness to self-evaluate.

    Bernard Bravenboer

    April 26, 2014 at 09:28

  10. I welcome the fact that Stellenbosch is becoming more English friendly, however, for the sake of international relations and research. Afrikaans is not the most spoken language in South Africa (that’s Zulu), but it is more spoken than English and not just as a first language and not just by white people. I therefore challenge the idea that English is a more representative language and better for transformation. I would welcome the idea of some classes in Zulu or Xhosa.


    April 25, 2014 at 15:46

  11. nicely written. in principle i can see that one would want to remember, acknowledge and learn from all periods in a country’s history. and i take your point that some (slow) progress at racial integration is being made at stellenbosch.

    but i don’t think your argument regarding the DF malan building is convincing. the naming of a building is a way to celebrate and honour someone. and to celebrate and honour someone who has caused so much humiliation and suffering is wrong.


    April 25, 2014 at 14:00

  12. Afrikaans is the single most spoken language in South Africa. Its OK to have a bastion. No need to express overt humility.

    Philip Copeman

    April 25, 2014 at 10:32

    • “Afrikaans is the single most spoken language in South Africa” say what?? source?

      P.S just because someone took it at school doesn’t mean they can speak it… so if that’s the basis of your argument that certainly doesn’t count. Proof: me.


      April 25, 2014 at 14:21

  13. If you say that “There is still a plague commemorating Hendrik Verwoerd in one of the entrances to the Accounting and Statistics building” are you alluding that Hendrik Verwoerd was an contagious bacterial disease?


    April 25, 2014 at 09:46

    • Certainly not ‘an’ contagious disease.

      Corrected. Thanks.

      Johan Fourie

      April 25, 2014 at 09:58

      • Touché


        April 25, 2014 at 14:34

      • I had no malicious ‘intend’ when highlighting said plague.


        April 25, 2014 at 14:41

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